Quang Minh Thich | FSU Library: Vietnamese Buddhism in America | 1-Acknowledgements, Table Of Contents

Vietnamese Refugees at a Buddhist service at Camp Pendleton
National Archives and Records Administration Electronic

Theses, Treatises and Dissertations | The Graduate School | 2007



A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Religion in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2007

Copyright © 2007 Quang Minh Thich All Rights Reserved

The members of the Committee approve the dissertation
of Quang Minh Thich defended on July 9th, 2007.

Kathleen M. Erndl | Professor Directing Dissertation
David Johnson | Outside Committee Member
Bryan Cuevas |
Committee Member
Amanda Porterfield |
Committee Member
Approved: John Corrigan |
Chair, Department of Religion

The Office of Graduate Studies has verified and approved the above named committee members.



Various sources of support from teachers, colleagues, and friends have greatly contributed to the completion of this dissertation. I owe thanks to many people, a few of whom I name here, for supporting me in the accomplishment. First, I wish to thank Dr. Kathleen M. Erndl, my dissertation advisor, whose encouragement, critical judgment, expertise, and moral support are indispensable to the clarity and coherence of this dissertation. I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. Amanda Porterfield who has given me encouragement and constructive suggestion all along. I wish to thank Dr. David Johnson, who has offered time and moral support since I first arrived to the program. I wish to thank Dr. Bryan Cuevas suggestive topics and friendly support. For final proofreading and editing, I also wish to thank my graduate colleagues in the Department of Religion and the Intensive English Center: Caleb Simmons, Roger Kott, Ty Nguyen and Loan-Lauren Phan Nguyen. I am deeply grateful to Dr. George E. Weaver, the former Dean of Student Affairs, Mr. Jon B. Bridges, the Program Assistant of Department of Religion, for their unwavering support and for working with Dr. Erndl, my Graduate Advisor, in making my studies a possibility. Special thanks to Peggy Gary, Susan Minnerly, Roberta Christie, and Mafe Brooks whose friendly support and encouragement are always appreciated.

For financial assistance through scholarship programs, I wish to thank the Congress of Graduate Students, the Office of the Provost, and the Office of Research, for awarding me the Fall 2005 Dissertation Research Grant of $500 and Mr. Doan L. Phung for bestowing on me the Fall 2006 Douglas Peterson Vietnamese Scholarship of $3000. These scholarship funds have been a great help to me in covering a part of the needed expenses of my research.

For technical support and programming, I owe special thanks to Vinh Do, Minh Kien, and Minh Truc. For collecting data, I owe special thanks to Trinh Nguyen, Ty Nguyen, and Hao Nguyen, Fred G. Henson, and Dieu Bao, Mai-Ly Nguyen, Minh Huy, Phuoc Thien, Viet Tran, Quang Vien, Quang Dinh, and Truong Nguyen. With my kind English teachers in mind, I wish to thank Mr. Bob Danks, Mrs. Antoinette Smith, Mrs. Jolie Trumann, Mrs. Patricia O’Neil, Mrs. Gail Braverman, Mr. and Mrs. Fred G. Henson who have instilled in me the love of English and an appreciation of the American way of life.

Finally, I wish to thank Thay Minh Tho who has helped to capture the scenes of the sacred Buddhist pilgrimage sites.


List of Figures… vi
Abstract… ix


A Brief History of Vienamese Buddhism… 24
The Tradition of Mantrayana of Vietnam… 40
The Pure Land Tradition of Vietnam… 51
The Meditation Tradition of Vietnam… 61
1. The Vinītaruci Thiền (Zen) School… 62
2. The Vô Ngôn Thông Zen School… 70
3. The Thao Đuong Zen School… 75
4. The Trúc Lâm Zen School… 79
Theravada Buddhism in Vietnam… 112


Thích Nhat Hanh and Engaged Buddhism… 158
Thích Thiên Ân and the Vietnamese Zen tradition… 201

International Buddhist Monastic Institute, San Fernando Valley… 232
Temple of Perfect Virtue, San Jose… 271
Temple of Pure Heart, Nashville… 294

Adaptation in Religious Symbol… 310
Adaptations in the Major Roles and Activities of the Temple… 323
Interaction between the Vietnamese Buddhist Tradition and Others… 344
Pilgrimages to the Sacred Buddhist Sites in India and Further Interactions… 359

Achievements… 378
Obstacles… 392
APPENDIX A: Approval from the Human Subjects Committee at FSU… 410
APPENDIX B: Questionnaire… 412
APPENDIX C: The Sūra)gama Mantra with English translation… 417
APPENDIX D: The Great Compassion DhƩra)ǁ with English translation… 430
APPENDIX E: The Ten Minor Mantras with English translation… 432
APPENDIX F: The Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī 435



1. One Pillar Pagoda, a lotus on a pond of lotus, a national symbol… 22
2. Vietnamese and Chinese Buddhist pilgrims during the seventh century… 38
3. Nam-Viet as of 211 BC and the formation of Vietnam (939-1780)… 38
4. Pháp Vân Temple (Chùa Dâu), Bắc Ninh Province… 42
5. The statue of Pháp Vân (Dharma Cloud), with attendants… 42
6. The Bảo Tràng or Ratnadhvaja at Hoa Lu, Hà Nam Ninh Province… 44
7. Other Ratnadhvajas, with Chinese inscriptions of the Uṣṇīsavijayadharanī… 44
8. The Great Compassion Mantra, in Siddham-Sanskrit… 47
9. The Thousand-Arm Avalokiteİvara at Bút Tháp Temple and Master Từ Đạo Hạnh in monastic robe at Thiên Phúc Temple… 47
10. The Surangama Mantra in Siddham-Sanskrit… 50
11. The Zen Masters Pháp Loa and Huyền Quang, the promoters of the Surangama Sutra… 50
12. The Kuṣān Amitābha inscription, Mathura, India… 53
13. Another photo of the Kuṣān Amitābha inscription and the image of AmitƩbha on the headdress of Avalokiteİvara, Mathura, India… 53
14. The genealogical lineage of the Vinǁtaruci Zen School… 63
15. The genealogical lineage of the Vô Ngôn Thông Zen School… 71
16. The genealogical lineage of the Thao Đuong Zen School… 76
17. The genealogical lineage of the Trúc Lâm Zen School… 83
18. Thích Đôn Hậu (left). Thích Huyền Quang came to pay homage to a stupa of the later Supervisor of the Sangha Thích Tinh Khiết when he was briefly release (right)… 123
19. Thích Huyền Quang in ceremonial robe (left), Thích Quảng Độ under house arrest (center), and Thích Quảng Độ stands trail by the Communist authorities (right)… 123
20. The diplomatic letter from President Andrew Jackson to the Emperor Minh Mạng and a page of the royal annals, Đại Nam Thực Lục Chính Biên, which recorded the second diplomatic mission headed by Edmund Roberts… 153
21. Master Thích Quang Đức and a number of other Buddhist monks and nuns who Immolated themselves for the Buddhist course in 1963… 156
22. Self-immolation of Thích Quang Đức, June 11, 1963, Saigon, and his heart which survived the crematory fire… 156
23. The Deer Park Monastery, in Escondido, San Diego, California… 163
24. Thích Nhfit Hạnh together with monks and nuns in walking meditation… 163
25. Thiên Ân leads the ordained monks and nuns at the College of Oriental Studies… 203
26. The International Meditation Center… 203
27. The Vietnamese Temple (Chùa Việt Nam)… 206
28. Thiên Ân, monks, nuns, and Buddhist followers welcomed Đức Niệm… 206
29. The number of Vietnamese Buddhist centers in the U.S. from 1970 to 2005… 225
30. The percentage of the three main groups of Vietnamese Buddhist centers in the U.S.: (1) Mahayana, (2) Theravada, and (3) The Mendicant sect and other groups… 225
31. The number of Vietnamese Buddhist centers in each state in the U.S. in 2000… 227
32. The number of Vietnamese Buddhist centers in each state in the U.S. in 2005… 227
33. The first Buddhist statues gracing a public road are at Ripley’s Believe It or Not in St. Augustine (Florida), the oldest city in the United States of America… 229
34. A closer look at the Dharma Protectors at the entrance of Ripley’s Believe It or Not Museum… 229
35. The International Buddhist Monastic Institute (Phật Học Viện Quốc Tế), 2007… 233
36. The Library of the Institute, with different sets of Tripitaka… 233
37. The International Buddhist Monastic Institute at the beginning in 1982… 238
38. The International Buddhist Monastic Institute in 1991, after the first Renovation… 238
39. An Quang Temple in Saigon and its Ven. Abbot Thích Thiện Hòa… 244
40. The 1957 Abbot-Abbess classes of monks at Pháp Hội Temple and nuns at Duợc Su Temple, under the training of the An Quang Institution… 244
41. The Masters and the Three Leading Preceptors at the Thiện Hòa High Ordination… 247
42. The ceremonial procession of the Thiện Hòa Ordination at the Institute in 1983… 247
43. Master Đức Niệm trains the new generations of nuns and monks at the International Buddhist Monastic Institute, California… 247
44. The number of Buddhist Texts published by the Institute from 1981 to 2003… 250
45. The books published by the International Buddhist Monastic Institute, with the Surangama Mantra near the ceiling 250
46. The Institute (Phật Học Viện Quốc Tế), an aerial view… 254
47. The 1996 Grand Quadrennial Buddhist Conference hosted by the Institute… 260
48. The members of the International Buddhist Sangha gather at the Institute… 260
49. Temple of Perfect Virtue (Chùa Đức Viên) newly built in 1999… 272
50. Temple of Perfect Virtue, an aerial view… 272
51. The new Main Hall of the Temple of Perfect Virtue… 274
52. Đàm Lựu seen in her various roles: dignified Master, humble initiator, and active recycling motivator… 274
53. The Abbess of Dược Su Temple, Ven. Nun Đàm Soạn… 277
54. The 1956 Nun Class at Dược Sư Temple, Saigon, Vietnam… 277
55. Awards to students at the Perfect Virtue (Đức Viên) Language School… 293
56. Teachers an students at the Đức Viên Language School… 293
57. Đàm Lựu together with the orphans at the Lumbini Orphanage and a typical class… 293
58. Temple of Pure Heart (Chùa Tịnh Tâm) in Nashville… 297
59. An aerial view of the Temple of Pure Heart in Nashville… 297
60. The old house before being converted into the Temple of Pure Heart… 300
61. The Temple of Pure Heart with its Main Hall renovated from the living room… 300
62. Ven. Trí Chon with a visiting monk from India and a glimpse of Thiên Mụ Pagoda, his root temple in Huế, Việt Nam… 304
63. The typical routes taken by Ven. Trí Chơn in his Dharma tour using grey hound buses to reach 36 Buddhist centers in 55 days, from August 20 to October 13, 1998 (After flying out of Los Angeles to New Orleans)… 304
64. The Dharma Wheel at the Institute… 313
65. A pattern of the Buddhist swastika on the ancient Dhamekh stupa, in Sarnath… 313
66. Quang Minh Temple, Chicago… 338
67. The Water and Land Incantation performed on October 22, 1989, by the Vietnamese Buddhist Venerables to bring peace and auspicious protection to the public beach at Lake Michigan… 338
68. The Buddhists at Từ Đàm Hải Ngoại, Texas, join the monk and nun for the Buddhist celebration. The female Buddhists are dressing in their traditional Áo dài… 349
69. Musical performance in temple courtyard, the females hold their Quai thao hats… 349
70. A scene of going to the Perfume Temple… 351
71. The temple goer continues to receive inspiration to climb up the mountains to vist temples… 351
72. Lumbini in Nepal (left) and Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya (right)… 361
73. Sarnath in Varanasi (left) and Kushinagara (right)… 361
74. The Viên Giác Institute and the Việt Nam Phật Quốc Tự in Bodh Gaya… 368
75. The Việt Nam Phật Quốc Tự in Lumbini and the Linh Sơn Buddhist Temple in Kushinagara… 368
76. Vietnamese Buddhist monks and nuns help to fund the Buddha project in public… 370
77. The Vietnamese Bridge, a memorable and life-saving gift to the local Indians… 370
78. Thích Minh Hạnh brings gift to poor local students (left), and a well sponsored by the Vietnamese Buddhists through monk Đồng Thuận of the Viên Giác Institute (right)… 370
79. The route taken by the Dhamma Vahan, the Dharma Chariot, organized by Udit Raj And Bhante Buddha Priya Rahula… 373
80. Dr. Ambedkar (left) and Udit Raj who leads the Deeksha on Nov. 4, 2001… 376
81. A view of the grand Buddhist Deeksha at the Ambedkar Bhawan on Nov. 4, 2001… 376
82. A view of the Pure Land Buddhist Retreat… 384
83. The retreatants with their brown and gray robes… 384
84. Buddhist monks, nuns, and supporting laity at the joint Summer Retreat… 388
85. Entering the Main Hall for the Summer Retreat ceremony… 388
86. The monastics listen to the rules and regulation of the Summer Retreat… 388
87. The cyber Sangha and popular Buddhism… 397
88. Heading toward the 21st century: Visual and digital storage of Buddhist information… 403
89. Buddhist visual technology in English for the generations of the electronic age… 403


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